When I was back in Oklahoma in March, I met with Anne Weil to see some of the new Apatosaurus material she’s getting out of her Homestead Quarry. It’s nice material, but that’s a post for another day. Anne said something that really resonated with me, which was, “I love it when you guys post about vertebral morphology, because it helps me learn this stuff.” Okay, Anne, message received. This will begin to make things right.
I spent a week at BYU back in 2005, collecting data for my dissertation. One of the first things I had to do was teach myself how to identify the vertebrae of different sauropods, because BYU has just about all of the common Morrison taxa. These are the notes I made back then.
I always planned to do something with them – clean them up, get them into a more usable form. There are a lot of scribbly asides that are probably hard for others to read, and it would be more useful if I put the easily confused taxa next to each other – Barosaurus next to Brachiosaurus, for example. And I didn’t go into serial changes at all.
Still, hopefully someone will find these useful. If there are things I missed or got wrong, the comment thread is open. And if you want all four spreads in one convenient package, here’s a PDF: Wedel 2005 notes on Morrison sauropod cervicals
November 20, 2014
Back in 2013, when we were in the last stages of preparing our paper Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus (Wedel and Taylor 2013b), I noticed that, purely by chance, all ten of the illustrations shared much the same limited colour palette: pale brows and blues (and of course black and white). I’ve always found this strangely appealing. Here’s a composite:
I’m really happy with this coincidence. In fact I think I might get it printed up as a poster for my office.
(Thought: if I did, would anyone else be interested in buying it?)
Update (a couple of hours later)
At Matt’s suggestion, I switched the order of figures 7 and 8 (the last two on the third row) to get the following version of the image. It breaks the canonical order of the figures, but it’s visually more pleasing.
Now we should write an updated version of the paper that reverses the order in which we refer to figures 7 and 8 :-)
- Wedel, Mathew J., and Michael P. Taylor. 2013. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. PLOS ONE 8(10):e78213. 14 pages. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078213
July 16, 2014
I was at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County yesterday to do some research in the ornithology collection. After lunch I was working on this pelican skeleton and I thought, “Geez, there is just no way to do this thing justice with still photos. I should make a video.” Here it is. You’ll want to see it full-screen–this being my first time out making a video, I didn’t realize that I was holding the phone the wrong way for efficient viewing on other devices.
The specimen is LACM Ornithology 86262. I’m posting this video with the knowledge and kind permission of the ornithology collection staff.
For previous things in this vein, please see:
- There’s almost nothing but nothing there, Brachiosaurus edition
- There’s almost nothing but nothing there, Sauroposeidon edition
If you like it that stuff like this exists, please support your local natural history museum, especially the LACM, which has some really fantastic education and outreach programs.
This came out two months ago, and I should have blogged about it then, but as usual I am behind. I’m blogging about it now because it deals with a question that has been on my mind for about 10 years now. If you want to skip my blatherations and get on to the good stuff, here’s the paper (Martin and Palmer 2014).
An Unsolved Problem
Back in 2004 I realized that if one had CTs or other cross-sections of a pneumatic bone, it was possible to quantify how much of the cross-sectional space was bone, and how much was air, a ratio I called the Air Space Proportion (ASP). That was the subject of my 2004 SVP talk, and a big part–arguably the most important part–of my chapter in The Sauropods in 2005. Of course the same calculation works for marrow-filled bones as well, where you would refer to it as an MSP rather than an ASP. If you can quantify the areas of bone, air, and marrow, you can figure out how dense the element was. One-stop shopping for all the relevant (simple) math is in this post.
Sometimes in science you end up with data that you don’t know what to do with, and that was my situation in 2004. Since I had CTs and other cross-sectional images of sauropod vertebrae, I could calculate ASPs for them, but I didn’t know what those results meant, because I didn’t have anything to compare them to. But I knew where to get I could get comparative data: from limb bone cross-sections. John Currey and R. McNeill Alexander had published a paper in 1985 titled, “The thickness of the walls of tubular bones”. I knew about that paper because I’d become something of an R. McNeill Alexander junkie after reading his book, Dynamics of Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Giants (Alexander 1989). And I knew that it had data on the cross-sectional properties of the limb bones in a host of animals, including crocs, birds, mammals, and–prophetically–pterosaurs.
If you know the inner and outer radii of a tubular bone, it is trivial to convert that to an ASP. So I could take the data from Currey and Alexander (1985) and calculate ASPs for the pneumatic bird and pterosaur bones in their study. Cubo and Casinos (2000) had a much larger sample of bird limb bones, and those got fed into my 2005 paper as well.
I was alert to the possibility that a mid-shaft cross-section might not be representative of the whole bone, and I hedged a bit in describing the bird ASPs (Wedel 2005: p. 212):
For the avian long bones described above, data were only presented for a single cross sec- tion located at midshaft. Therefore, the ASP values I am about to discuss may not be representative of the entire bones, but they probably approximate the volumes (total and air) of the diaphyses. For tubular bones, ASP may be determined by squaring K (if r is the inner diameter and R the outer, then K is r/R, ASP is πr^2/πR^2 or simply r^2/R^2, and ASP = K^2). For the K of pneumatic bones, Currey and Alexander (1985) report lower and upper bounds of 0.69 and 0.86, and I calculate a mean of 0.80 from the data presented in their table 1. Using a larger sample size, Cubo and Casinos (2000) found a slightly lower mean K of 0.77. The equivalent values of ASP are 0.48 and 0.74, with a mean of 0.64, or 0.59 for the mean of Cubo and Casinos (2000). This means that, on average, the diaphysis of a pneumatic avian long bone is 59%–64% air, by volume.
Now, even though I hedged and talked about diaphyses (shafts of long bones) rather than whole bones, I honestly expected that the ASP of any given slice would not change much along the length of a bone. Long bones tend to be tubular near the middle, with a thick bony cortex surrounding the marrow or air space, and honeycombed near the ends, with much thinner cortices and lots of bony septa or trabeculae (for marrow-filled bones, this is called spongy or trabecular bone, and for air-filled bones it is best referred to as camellate pneumatic bone). I figured that the decrease in cortical bone thickness near the ends of the bone would be offset by the increase in internal bony septa, and that the bone-to-air ratio through the whole element would be under some kind of holistic control that would keep it about even between the middle of the bone and the ends.
It is fair to ask why I didn’t just go check. The answer is that research is to some extent a zero-sum game, in that every project you take on means another that gets left waiting in the wings or abandoned completely. I was mainly interested in what ASP had to say about sauropods, not birds, and I had other fish to fry.
So that’s me from 2004-2012: aware that mid-shaft cross-sections of bird and pterosaur long bones might not be representative of whole elements, but not sufficiently motivated to go check. Then at SVPCA in Oxford that fall, Liz Martin rocked my world.
A Paper in the Can
At SVPCA 2012, Liz Martin gave a talk titled, “A novel approach to estimating pterosaur bone mass using CT scans”, the result of her MS research with Colin Palmer at the University of Bristol. In that talk–the paper for which has been submitted to JVP–Liz and Colin were interested in using CT scans of pterosaur bones to quantify the volume of bone, in order to refine pterosaur mass estimates. I was fully on board, since estimating the masses of extinct animals is a minor obsession of mine. But what really caught my attention is that Liz and Colin had full stacks of slices spanning the length of each element–and therefore everything they needed to see how or if ASPs of pterosaur wing bones changed along their lengths.
At the next available break I dashed up to Liz, opened up my notebook, and started scribbling and gesticulating and in general carrying on like a crazy person. It’s a wonder she didn’t flee in terror. The substance of my raving was that (1) there was this outstanding problem in the nascent field of ASP research, and (2) she had everything she needed to address it, all that was required was a little math using the data she already had (I say this as if running the analyses and writing the paper were trivial tasks–they weren’t). Fortunately Liz and Colin were sufficiently interested to pursue it. Their paper on ASPs of pterosaur wing bones was submitted to PLOS ONE this February, and published on May 9 (while their earlier paper continues to grind its way through JVP).
And I’m blogging about it because the results were not what I expected.
Here’s the graph that tells the tale. Each line traces the ASP per slice along the length of a single pterosaur wing bone. A few things jump out:
- Almost all of the lines drop near the left end. This is expected–if you’re cutting slices of a bone and measuring the not-bone space inside, then as you approach the end of the bone, you’re cutting through progressively more bone and less space. A few of the lines also drop near the right. I’m puzzled by that–if my explanation is correct, the ASP should plunge about equally at both ends. And the humerus USNM 11925 doesn’t follow the same pattern as the rest. As Martin and Palmer write, “It is unknown if this is a general feature of humeri, or this single taxon and more investigation is needed.”
- Almost all of the bones have MUCH lower ASPs at mid-shaft than near the ends, on the order of 10% or more. So mid-shaft cross-sections of pterosaur wing bones tend to significantly underestimate how pneumatic they were. It would be interesting to know if the same holds true for bird long bones, or for the vertebrae of pterosaurs, birds, and sauropods. As Martin and Palmer point out, more work is needed.
- The variation in ASP along the length of a single bone is in some cases greater than the variation between elements and individuals. That’s pretty cool. On the happy side, it means that getting into the nitty-gritty of ASP is not just stamp-collecting; you really need to know what is going on along the length of a bone before you can say anything intelligent about ASP or the density of the element. On the less happy side, that’s going to be a righteous pain in the butt for sauropod workers, because vertebrae are tough to get good scans of, assuming they will fit through a CT scanner at all (most don’t).
- Finally, pterosaurs turn out to be even more pneumatic than you would think from looking at the already-freakishly-thin-walled shafts of their long bones. That’s pretty awesome, and it dovetails nicely with the emerging picture that pneumaticity in ornithodirans was more prevalent and more interesting than even I had suspected–it’s in prosauropods (Yates et al. 2012) and brachiosaur tails (Wedel and Taylor 2013) and rebbachisaur hips (Fanti et al. 2013) and saltasaur shoulders (Cerda et al. 2012) and, er, a couple of places that I can’t mention just yet. So life is good.
A few last odds and ends:
You can read more of this story at Liz Martin’s blog, scattered over several recent posts.
A final note: this is Liz Martin’s first published paper, so congratulations are in order. Well done, Liz!
Almost Immediate Update: As soon as I posted this, I sent the link to Liz to see if I’d missed anything important. She writes, “It may be worth mentioning that it’s a question that I am actively following up on in my PhD, and looking into it with birds too hopefully. And it is indeed all possible using ImageJ, as that’s how I did the whole thing!”
- Alexander, R. McNeill. 1989. Dynamics of Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Giants. Columbia University Press, New York. 167 pages.
- Cerda, I.A., Salgado, L., and Powell, J.E. 2012. Extreme postcranial pneumaticity in sauropod dinosaurs from South America. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift. DOI 10.1007/s12542-012-0140-6
- Cubo, J., and Casinos, A. 2000. Incidence and mechanical significance of pneumatization in the long bones of birds. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 499–510.
- Currey, J. D., and Alexander, R. McN. 1985. The thickness of the walls of tubular bones. Journal of Zoology 206:453–468.
- Fanti, F., Cau, A., Hassine, M., and Contessi, M. 2013. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Tunisia with extreme avian-like pneumatization. Nature Communications 4:2080. doi:10.1038/ncomms3080
- Martin, E.G., and Palmer, C. 2014. Air space proportion in pterosaur limb bones using computed tomography and its implications for previous estimates of pneumaticity. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97159. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097159
- Wedel, M.J. 2005. Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in sauropods and its implications for mass estimates. pp. 201-228 in Wilson, J. A., and Curry-Rogers, K. (eds.), The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology. University of California Press, Berkeley.
- Wedel, M.J., and Taylor, M.P. 2013. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan andApatosaurus. PLOS ONE 8(10):e78213. 14 pages. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078213
- Yates, A.M., Wedel, M.J., and Bonnan, M.F. 2012. The early evolution of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57(1):85-100. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2010.0075
May 19, 2014
Now considered a junior synonym of Supersaurus, on very solid grounds.
Incidentally, unlike the neural spines of most non-titanosaurian sauropods, the neural spine of this vertebra is not simply a set of intersecting plates of bone. It is hollow and has a central chamber, presumably pneumatic. Evidence:
You know the drill: lotsa pretty pix, not much yap.
Our first stop of the day was the Fruita Paleontological Area, which has a fanstastic diversity of Morrison animals, including the mammal Fruitafossor and the tiny ornithopod Fruitadens.
Plus it’s a pretty epic landscape, especially with the clouds and broken light we had this morning.
I found a bone! Several bits, actually, a few meters away from the Fruitadens type quarry. I’d like to think that this proximal femur might be Fruitadens, but I don’t know the diagnostic characters and haven’t had time to look them up. Anyone know how diagnostic this honorary shard of excellence might be?
After lunch, John Foster took us on a short hike to the quarry where Elmer Riggs got the back half of the Field Museum Apatosaurus. The front half came from a site in southern Utah, several decades later.
The locals brought Riggs out in the 1930s for the dedication of two monuments–this one at the Apatosaurus quarry, and another like it at the Brachiosaurus quarry some miles away. Tragically, both monuments have the names of the dinosaurs misspelled!
In the afternoon we visited the Mygatt-Moore Quarry and the Camarasaurus site in Rabbit Valley. Can you see the articulated Camarasaurus neck in this photo?
Here’s a hint: the neural arches of two posterior cervical vertebrae in
transverse horizontal cross-section.
This Camarasaurus is apparently a permanent feature. If you’re wondering why no-one has excavated it, it’s because it’s buried in sandstone that is stupid-dense. The expenditure of time and resources just isn’t worth it, when right down the hill dinosaurs are pouring out of the much softer sediments of the Mygatt-Moore Quarry like water from a hydrant. This is the lesson I am learning about the Morrison: finding dinosaurs is easy. Finding dinosaurs you can get out of the ground and prepare–that’s something else.
Our last stop of the day was Gaston Design, where Rob Gaston showed us how he molds, casts, and mounts everything from tiny teeth to good-sized skeletons.
Like this Deinosuchus that is about to chomp on Jim Kirkland. Jim doesn’t look too worried.
Here’s a nice cast of a busted sauropod dorsal, probably from Apatosaurus or Diplodocus, showing the pneumatic internal structure. Compare to similar views of dorsals in this post and this one. This is actually one half of a matched set that includes both halves of the centrum. I left with one of those sets of my own, a few dollars poorer and a whole lot happier.
The end–for now.
That last one really hurts. Here’s the original image, which should have gone in the paper with the interpretive trace next to it rather than on top of it:
Papers referenced in these slides:
- Taylor, M.P., and Wedel, M.J. 2013b. The effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture and range of motion in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs. PLOS ONE 8(10): e78214. 17 pages. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078214
- Wedel, M.J. 2007a. What pneumaticity tells us about ‘prosauropods’, and vice versa. Special Papers in Palaeontology 77:207-222.
- Wedel, Mathew J., Richard L. Cifelli and R. Kent Sanders. 2000b. Osteology, paleobiology, and relationships of the sauropod dinosaur Sauroposeidon. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 45(4): 343-388.