This is just for show. Download the full-res PDF at the first link below.

Proximately, this page exists to hold the references and figures from our poster for the American Podiatric Medical Association 2021 Annual Scientific Meeting (“The National”), as well as a copy of the poster itself. In the long run whatever papers come out of this stream of research may be posted here as well, or at least linked here if they get their own pages.

Below you will find a PDF of the poster, as well as references, acknowledgements, figures, and more.

PDF of the poster

How to cite our poster

Kay, Kaelen, Estes, Adrienne, and Wedel, Mathew. 2021. Peroneus tertius: a review of its evolution, variability, and clinical significance. American Podiatric Medical Association, Annual Scientific Meeting. Accepted.

IRB approval

Anonymized cadaver data and photos for this project were collected with the approval of the Western University of Health Sciences Institutional Review Board.



We thank Nina McCoy and the Willed Body Donation Program at WesternU for access to cadaver specimens, and Dr. Jessie Atterholt for modeling the surface anatomy of the PT tendon.


All figures prepared by Kaelen Kay and Matt Wedel.

Presentation of PT in surface anatomy

Presentation of PT in cadaveric dissection

Prevalence of peroneus tertius in dissection versus palpation

Variation in peroneus tertius across primates. Data from Straus (1930), Kimura and
Takahashi (1985), and Diogo (2018).

Variation: absent PT

Variation: PT with multiple attachments

Variation: PT with broad attachments

Range of origins and insertions of PT

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