The paper

Open access (CC By) at PeerJ:

The full peer-review history is available.

An earlier version of this paper was made available as PeerJ Preprint, which at that point had not yet been peer-reviewed:

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High-resolution figures

Figure 1. NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos, shown from all six cardinal directions. Top row: A. dorsal view, with anterior to the left. Middle row, left to right: B. anterior, C. left lateral, D. posterior and E. right lateral view. Bottom row: F. ventral view, with anterior to the left. Scale bar = 200 mm.

Figure 2. Comparative morphology of mid-posterior dorsals from six sauropods: Xenoposeidon and five representatives of major groups. Each vertebra is shown in anterior and left lateral (or right lateral reversed) views, scaled to the same centrum height. Parts A–F represent different vertebrae, and sub-parts 1 and 2 in each case represent the anterior and leftlateral views respectively. A. The diplodocid Diplodocus carnegii CM 84, 8th dorsal vertebra: A1 anterior, modified from Hatcher (1901:plate VIII), A2 right lateral reversed, modified from Hatcher (1901:plate VII). B. The rebbachisaurid Rebbachisaurus garasbae MNHN MRS 1958, posterior dorsal vertebra: B1 anterior, B2 left lateral. C. Xenoposeidon proneneukos NHMUK PV R2095, mid-posterior dorsal vertebra: C1 anterior, C2 left lateral. D. The camarasaurid Camarasaurus supremus AMNH 5760/D-X-125, ?10th dorsal vertebra, modified from Osborn and Mook (1923:plate LXX): D1 anterior, D2 left lateral. E. The brachiosaurid Giraffatitan brancai MB.R.3822 (formerly HMN AR1), from a digital model supplied by Heinrich Mallison: E1 anterior, E2 right lateral reversed. F. The titanosaur Yongjinglong datangi GSGM ZH(08)-04, mid-dorsal vertebra, modified from Li et al. (2014:figure 9): F1 anterior, F2 left lateral.

Figure 3. Autapomorphies of Xenoposeidon proneneukos NHMUK PV R2095, mid-posterior dorsal vertebra, highlighted in red. A. anterior view. B. left lateral view. Numbers pertain to the numbering of autapomorphies in the text. 1a, neural arch covers whole of centrum, and 1b is contiguous with posterior articular facet. 2, neural arch is inclined forward by 30–35 degrees relative to the vertical. 3a, inclined ridge-like lamina marks ventral margin of 3b broad featureless area of bone. 4, large teardrop-shaped anterior fossa. 5a, vaulted laminae bound this fossa, but are not the medial CPRLs (5b, drawn in finer lines), which continue up to the presumed location of the prezygapophyses.

Figure 4. Centra and neural arches of posterior dorsal vertebrae from two rebbachisaurid sauropods (not to scale), highlighting the distinctive “M” shape formed by laminae on the lateral face of the neural arch. A. NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos. B. MNHN MRS 1958, a posterior dorsal vertebra from the holotype specimen of Rebbachisaurus garasbae.

Figure 5. NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos, in left anteroventrolateral view, highlighting the three sets of laminae related to the prezygapophyses. The trajectories of the medial CPRLs (which emerge from the neural arch pedicels) and the lateral CPRLs (which intersect with the APCLs) indicate the approximate position of the prezygapophyses. The additional arched laminae form the margins of the large teardrop-shaped anterior fossa, homologous with a CPRF, but meet at a position some way below and posterior to the presumed location of the prezygapophyseal facets. Breakage of both medial CPRLs and the left ACPL and PCDL is indicated by cross-hatching. Note that, from this perspective, the lateral CPRL appears to turn a corner where it intersects with the ACPL, such that the posteroventral portion of the lateral CPRL appears contiguous with the dorsal portion of the ACPL. This is an illusion brought about by the eminence at the point of intersection. As always, this is much easier to see in three dimensions (see supplementary file 1).

Figure 6. NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos, in left lateral view, with interpretative drawings. A. The incorrect interpretation of the laminae from Taylor and Naish (2017:figure 4A), with identifying captions greyed out since they are largely incorrect. B. The revised interpretation of the same laminae, based on the similar arrangement in Rebbachisaurus garasbae. Scale bar = 200 mm.

Figure 7. NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos, in left lateral view, interpreted as a rebbachisaurid. This interpretation is modelled primarily on MNHN MRS 1958, a posterior dorsal vertebra from the holotype specimen of Rebbachisaurus garasbae. The CPOL passes through a sheetlike PCDL, as in Rebbachisaurus; but the lateral CPRL forms a cross-shaped junction with the ACPL, each of these laminae equally interrupting the trajectory of the other. Scale bar = 200 mm.

Supplementary files

Supplementary file 1. Three-dimensional surface model (11 million polygons) of NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos. A 3D polygon mesh file was created by Heinrich Mallison (Palaeo3D) in Agisoft Photoscan Pro version 1.3.0 (agisoft.com), from 95 high resolution digital photographs by the author. All 95 images aligned, and resulted in a dense point cloud at maximum resolution of 20,900,043 points and 44,871,128 polygons. Scaling was based on a single 10 cm scale bar created from a high quality scale bar placed in the pictures with the specimen. Available from https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5605612.v2 and viewable online at https://sketchfab.com/models/7f88203e0bbb49a194cb254ab05c4b22

Supplementary file 2. Rotating video, rendered in Rhinoceros 5.0, of three-dimensional surface model (11 million polygons) of NHMUK PV R2095, the holotype and only vertebra of Xenoposeidon proneneukos. A 3D polygon mesh file was created by Heinrich Mallison (Palaeo3D) in Agisoft Photoscan Pro version 1.3.0 (agisoft.com), from 95 high resolution digital photographs by the author. All 95 images aligned, and resulted in a dense point cloud at maximum resolution of 20,900,043 points and 44,871,128 polygons. Scaling was based on a single 10 cm scale bar created from a high quality scale bar placed in the pictures with the specimen. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aslY76uUAA

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